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Unit 2: Fuels Classification

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Timber Group

Fuel Model Description Common Types/Species Fire Behavior
8. Closed Timber Litter Closed canopy stands of healthy, short-needled conifers or hardwoods tha have leafed out support fire in the compact litter layer. This layer is mainly needles, leaves, and some twigs since little undergrowth is present. Representative conifer types are white pine, lodgepole pine spruces, fires, and larch. Slow burning surface fires with low flame heights are typical, although an occasional "jackpot" or heavy fuel concentration can cause flareups.
9. Hardwood Litter Fire spread is primarily in surface litter such as concentrations of dead, dry leaves in fall or spring. Stand can be hardwoods, mixed hardwood/conifers, or long needle conifers. The oak/hickory types are best represented, but also covers toher hardwoods and loosely compacted litter under long-needled conifers, such as ponderosa, Jeffery and red pines or southern pine plantations. Also include mixed hardwoods/white spruce type in Alaska when conditions are very dry. Fires run through the surface litter and possibly torch out trees, spot, and crown where concentrations of dead materials are encountered.
10. Timber (Litter and Understory) Fire spreads through high loadings of dead, down woody fuels beneath over-mature timber stands. Shrub understory or tree reproduction may be present. Much of the woody material is over 3 inches in diameter. Any forest type may be considered if heavy down materials are present; ex. are insect or disease-ridden stands, wind thrown stands, over-mature situations with deadfall, and aged light thinning or partial cut slash. Also used for settled thinning or partial cut conifer slash with needles fallen. Torching of individual trees and spotting is more frequent, and fire intensity is higher in this model than model 8 or 9, thereby leading to potential fire control difficulties.
Copyright 2008, by the Contributing Authors. Cite/attribute Resource . admin. (2005, October 05). Unit 2: Fuels Classification. Retrieved January 07, 2011, from Free Online Course Materials — USU OpenCourseWare Web site: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons License