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Chapter 4: Culture and Personality

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Reading Assignment: Chapter 4: Culture, Personality, and Psychological Process

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Assignment Overview

MCQ   ::  Matching   ::  True/False  ::   Short Essay

MCQ - Chapter 4: Culture, Personality, and Psychological Process

1. The field of culture and personality in the 1920s emphasized:

a. that personality is not influenced by culture.
b. that the personality traits of individuals born into each society determine the main cultural characteristics that they will share.
c. that there are close parallels between each society’s culture and the common personality characteristics of its people.
d. That personality is an innate feature of each individual and is not greatly influenced by socialization.

2. Psychological anthropology beginning with the 1950s differs from the earlier culture and personality research in:

a. placing more weight on global generalizations about personality.
b. emphasizing statistically testable links between specific aspects of culture and particular psychological processes.
c. less use of cross-cultural comparison.
d. less reliance on fieldwork.

3. Barry, Child, and Bacon compared the socialization practices of agricultural societies with foraging societies and found that:

a. Agricultural societies were more likely to stress individualism.
b. Foraging societies were more likely to stress obedience.
c. Agricultural societies were less likely to stress assertiveness.
d. Foraging societies were more likely to stress compliance.

4. Cora DuBois attributed the shallow friendships and suspicious, pessimistic outlook of the Alorese to:

a. the influence of genetics on Alorese personalities.
b. the influence of a harsh environment on the Alorese.
c. socialization that began with great indulgence at an early age.
d. socialization that involved inconsistent care and little attention to the needs of children.

5. Which of the following best defines deviant?

a. a person who has broken moral rules
b. a person who breaks any rule
c. one who has been labeled by others for one’s role-playing errors
d. a criminal

6. Which of the following is NOT true of the residual rules of a society?

a. They are taken for granted and not formally taught.
b. Their violation is associated with insanity.
c. They constitute an open ended category of miscellaneous rules.
d. They are the religious rules of a society.

7. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of trances as outlined by Arnold Ludwig?

a. They always involve alterations in thinking.
b. They always involve alterations in perception.
c. They always involve hyper suggestibility.
d. They always involve feelings of rejuvenation.

8. Which of the following distressful emotions may be expressed as an alternative to any of the remaining three?

a. fear
b. guilt
c. shame
d. anger

9. Spirit travel trance According to Bourguignon and Greenbaum, spirit possession is the form of trance that would be most likely in societies:

a. that place heaviest stress on independence and assertion.
b. which stress the importance of compliance.
c. with small and widely dispersed populations.
d. of native North America.

10. According to the text, the central psychological role of ritual is:

a. uniting a community for coordinated action in times of disaster.
b. perpetuating loyalty to a religious ideology.
c. reducing anxiety.
d. helping people eliminate their problems.

11. Amok was a culturally specific mental disorder fund in which part of the world?

a. Mongolia
b. China
c. Indonesia
d. New Guinea

Matching Exercise - Chapter 4: Culture, Personality, and Psychological Process

1. configurationalism
2. national character studies
3. psychological anthropology
4. personality
5. Contrary Warrior
6. status-appropriate roles
7. face-work
8. deviance
9. stigma
10. fear

11. grief
12. anger
13. stress
14. trance
15. spirit possession trance
16. ritual
17. deviant
18. residual rules
19. insanity
20. amok

 

a.

interaction in which effort is directed to maintaining or returning behavior to roles considered appropriate for members of a group; efforts to maintain or reestablish face

 

b.

a person who has been labeled a rule violator by others for his or her role-playing errors

 

c.

an attempt to identify the psychological characteristics of complex, industrial societies

 

d.

a distressful emotion characterized by a sense of loss, sadness, and failure to obtain esteem from others

 

e.

Benedict's view of culture as a configuration of values and customs that influence individual psychology

 

f.

an emotional state during which another person is held responsible for one's own distress; may substitute for anxiety, fear, guilt, grief, or shame in situations in which those emotions might otherwise be felt

 

g.

a culture-specific hysterical disorder in which young men attack other people and destroy property

 

h.

A deviant master status the roles of which involve residual rule breaking

 

i.

the ways of behaving that are expected of an individual who holds a particular social status in a specific culture

 

j.

behaviors, often performed in repetitive and stereotyped ways, that express people's anxieties by acting them out; may be an attempt to influence the supernatural realm to achieve greater control over the natural world

 

k.

a physiological response to any demand, characterized by the body's preparing itself for action

 

l.

loss of rank that accompanies the social rejection of persons who have violated accepted role behavior

 

m.

a consistent pattern of behavior related both to inner forces and to external, cultural, and social pressures

 

n.

subjective state of mind where experiences are not interpreted in terms of normal symbolic categories of one's culture

 

o.

a Cheyenne status that required the reversal of all normal behaviors, reserved for the bravest warriors

 

p.

an empirical approach to data collection that emphasizes statistical correlations between culture and psychological processes

 

q.

an altered state of consciousness in which individuals feel as if their behavior is under the control of one or more spirits that have entered their bodies

 

r.

behavior that differs enough from what society expects that others notice and react to it

 

s.

a distressful emotion characterized by concerns about inadequate power to protect oneself from specific danger

 

t.

miscellaneous, normally unspoken rules that people are expected to follow to avoid violating the pattern or style of behavior that is expected in the culture


True/False - Chapter 4: Culture, Personality, and Psychological Process

True

False

 

 

 

1. A basic personality type consists of those personality traits that are shared by all members of a society?

 

 

2. According to Margaret Mead, the Iatmul of New Guinea encouraged aggression in their children by frustrating their attempts to take food.

 

 

3. Emotion is a biological process, but it is also related to role playing.

 

 

4. According to Barry, Child, and Bacon how do agricultural and foraging societies commonly differ in their socialization practices?

 

 

5. According to Wright, there are definite relationships between socialization practices and a society's folklore.

 

 

6. Anxiety is one result of unrelieved stress.

 

 

7. Cheyenne Contrary Warriors behave the way they do because they

suffer from a psychological disorder.

 

 

 

8. Anxiety about inadequate handling of power is a characteristic of the neuroses.

 

 

9. Role playing by schizophrenics suggests that the underlying problem may involve difficulty in “presentation of self”.

 

 

10. Amok is interpreted religiously in New Guinea.


Short Essay Questions - Chapter 4: Culture, Personality, and Psychological Process

1. What did Kardiner mean by basic personality structure and modal personality type?

2. What are the main ways in which the early culture and personality studies have been criticized?

3. How does an anthropological definition of personality differ from a psychological definition?

4. Outline the three stages in the typical ritual by which damaged face can be repaired.

5. What is anxiety and how does it differ from the other distressful feelings that people sometimes experience?

6. According to Ludwig, what are the common characteristics of trances?

7. Why do spirit travel trance and spirit possession trance tend to be common in different kinds of societies?

8. According to Scheff, what are the three main non-volitional causes of residual rule breaking? What do these have to do with Selye's concept of stress?

9. According to Seymour Parker, what characteristics are typical of societies in which hysteria is prevalent?

10. What facts about Western cultures seem relevant to understanding anorexia nervosa as a culture specific mental disorder?

Copyright 2008, by the Contributing Authors. Cite/attribute Resource . admin. (2005, January 04). Chapter 4: Culture and Personality. Retrieved January 07, 2011, from Free Online Course Materials — USU OpenCourseWare Web site: http://ocw.usu.edu/Anthropology/Cultural_Anthropology/Chapter_4__Culture_and__Personality.htm. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons License